This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Chemical Oceanography. An introduction to the chemistry of the oceans. Descriptive chemical oceanography of the components of ocean waters (metals, gases, organic compounds and nutrients). Chemical processes occurring in marine and estuarine waters and their impact on the near-shore and oceanic environments. Geochemistry of marine sediments â€“ diversity of chemical nature and processes; Radiometric dating â€“ involving environmental and mineral-based isotopes. Stable isotopes as water mass tracer. Biogeochemical cycles in oceanic systems.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Chemical Oceanographic Laboratory. Chemical and physical methods in chemical oceanography. Analytical and instrumentation techniques used to determine density, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and components of the carbonate system. In-class field trips required.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Coastal Processes and Geomorphology. Coastal zone-definition, concepts and issues. Dynamics of wind-driven coastal flow. The physical processes at the land-sea interface including estuaries, beaches and deltas. Water waves, tides, storm surge, sea level, sediment transport, beaches, circulation and mixing. Elements of coastal geomorphology, temporalâ€“spatial dynamics of coastal landforms, coastal landform analysis, shoreline changes. Effects on coastal flows of coastline geometry, bottom topography, friction, and density stratification. Coastal hydraulics: groundwater-seawater interactions.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Atmospheric and Ocean dynamics. Derivation and scaling of the equations of atmospheric motion; hydrostatic and geostrophic balance; circulation and vorticity. Dynamical equations governing steady oceanic currents; the Rossby and Ekman numbers and characteristic values in some observed currents. Geostropohic currents â€“ barotropic and baroclinic mass transports. Specific heat and thermal conductivity of sea-water: heat sources and exchanges; ocean heat budget; diffusion of heat and salt by turbulent mixing. Changes in oceanic salt distribution by vertical mixing and horizontal advection. Forces and the relationship to the structure of the ocean. Influence of climate change on ocean dynamics and vice versa.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Marine Meteorology. Atmospheric radiation; absorption and scattering principles of remote sensing of the atmosphere; cloud microphysics; nucleation, coalescence, ice crystal growth, atmospheric electricity and lightning. Air-Sea Interaction/ocean-atmosphere coupling: Walker circulation. Air-sea interaction; wind-driven currents in the Ekman layer; the Ekman spiral. Ekman transport; the thermocline; swells and tides. Climate change with special focus on the oceans. The El Nino and ENSO; dynamical and statistical/empirical methods; teleconnections.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Chemical Oceanography Laboratory. General properties of waves; surface gravity, capillary, inertia-gravity, internal, Kelvin, Rossby; continental shelf and coastal-trapped waves; many illustrations of how ocean variability can be described by free and forced waves. Ocean currents and circulation. Forced and unforced equatorial ocean waves, reflection of equatorial waves from ocean boundaries, equatorial currents, Southern Oscillation dynamics.
This course is a core course which introduces the studentsâ€™ to Chemical Oceanography Laboratory. Shallow-water theory, Poincare, Kelvin, and Rossby waves; boundary layer theory; wind driven ocean circulation models; quasigeostrophic motion on a sphere, thermocline problem; stability theories. Classical linear stability theory of fluid flows with examples and applications in geophysical fluid dynamics. Specific topics include inviscid, viscous, and stratified parallel shear flow, thermal convection, double-diffusive systems, and rotating systems.